FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO

1.New methods of detecting radio waves were invented in England, France, Russia and Italy, but the first practical use of the discovery was мейд by A.S. Popov and G. Marcony.

2.A. Popov, the great Russian scientist, was born in 1858. By the time he graduated from the Petersburg University (1883), he had FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO already had a broad knowledge of electrical theory as well as*9.1.2. a wide experience in that field.*11.9.

3. Popov was one of the first to pay attention**7.1.2.1.,10.1. to the works of Hertz who proved by experiments the existence of electromagnetic waves. After many experiments Popov carried out together with his assistant FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO Rybkin, the device they constructed*9.3.2.started receiving electromagnetic waves at a distance.

By means*11.12. of his receiver Popov could detect the waves at a distance of several meters and then several kilometers. While making experiments,*7.3.2.1. the scientist discovered that when a wire was connected to the receiver, the range FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO of operation*11.8. increased. After that he connected his first receiver to the first antenna.

4. On April 25, 1895, Popov demonstrated his device at the Russian Physic-Chemical Society. Popov expressed hope that the device, after being perfected, would make it*4.1.possible to transmit signals at a distance by means of rapid FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO electrical oscillations. In summer 1895, Popov´s invention was successfully tested and in the same year he attached to the device an apparatus used for recording telegrams over the wire telegraph. In the following year this receiver was used at an electric power station in Nizhny FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO Novgorod.

5. In 1897, Popov successfully carried out his experiments at sea, having succeeded in effecting*11.8. radio communication between the shore and the sea at a distance of 3 km.*7.3.2.2. In those days the future wireless*1.3.communication between the continents was being founded.

6.The year of 1898 saw a new important invention мейд by Popov together FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO with his assistants Rybkin and Troitsky - the reception of signals by means of a receiver. Successful experiments having been completed,*8.4. serious practical testing was started. In those days Popov´s radio telegraph helped to save the ship „General-Admiral Apraksin“.

X. Письменно озаглавьте 4 и 6 абзацы текста.

Вариант FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO 3

I. Перепишите предложения и переведите их, принимая во внимание разные функции слов it, that (those), one (см. гр. справ.: 4.1., 4.4., 4.3., также ссылки после *).

1. It is necessary to reduce the load in the battery to a minimum.

2. It was in 1896 that Popov transmitted the first radiogram.

3. The biggest*3.1. difficulty in FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO designing*7.2.2.,11.8. optical computers is that of miniaturization.

4. One should be careful when working*7.3.2.1. with chemical substances.

II. Перепишите предложения и переведите их, беря во внимание особенности перевода на российский язык определительных блоков существительного с левым либо правым определениями (см. гр. справ.: 2.2., 2.3., 2.3.1.,также ссылки после *).

1. The problem of antenna design FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO*11.8.is one of the most important problems in radio engineering.

2. Isotope power sources have some limitations.

3. The scales in common use today are the Fahrenheit, Kelvin and Centigrade.

III. Перепишите предложения, обусловьте в каждом из их глагол-сказуемое, его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на российский язык (см. гр FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO. справ.: 5.,5.1., 5.2., 5.3., 5.4., 5.5., 5.5.1., 5.5.6., 11.13.,также ссылки после *).

1. Advances in microelectronic components led to the development of smaller*3.1.computers.

2. By the end of the nineteenth century the method of making*7.2.2. rockets had greatly developed.

3. These questions were answered in series of investigations.

IV. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в каждом из их модальный глагол либо его FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO эквивалент. Переведите предложения на российский язык (см. гр. справ.: 5.6., 5.6.1., 5.6.3.2.,также ссылки после *).

1. A rheostat is a resistor whose resistance may be varied.

2. The output power should be мейд as high as possible.

3. Transistor oscillations can be used for the same purposes as vacuum tubes.

4. The cathode-ray tube enabled FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO scientists to control*11.8. electrons.

V. Перепишите и переведите предложения, беря во внимание разные функции глагола to be (см. гр. справ. 6., 6.1., 6.2., 5.6.3., 5.6.3.1., 5.5.1.,также ссылки после *).

1. The next advantage is that there is no external electric field in the system.

2. The purpose of the detector in a receiver is to FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO remove the desired communication from the carrier.

3. We are to finish with the experiments in two months at the most.*3.2.

4. Electronics was being used more and more to control industrial processes.

VI. Перепишите и переведите предложения, беря во внимание разные функции глагола to have (см. гр. справ.: 6., 6.1., 6.3., 5.6.3., 5.6.3.1., 5.5.1.,также ссылки FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO после *).

1. Ambient light has a very little effect upon communication link.Many years had passed before*9.2.(1).Faraday´s discovery of induction found practical application.

2. Investigating the nature of lightning Lomonosov had to risk his life.

3. Several attempts have been мейд to produce artificial rain.

VII. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO внимание на перевод парных союзов и многозначность неких служебных слов (см. гр. справ.: 3.5., 9.1.2., 9.2., 11.6., 11.7.,также ссылки после *).

1. The longer and thinner a piece of wire the greater will be its resistance.

2. Ordinarily, single-phase motors are not self-starting, since the single-phase field does not revolve FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO as does*4.2.3.the three-phase.

3. The energy which an object has because of its motion is called kinetic energy.

VIII. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод устойчивых словосочетаний (см. гр. справ.: 10., 10.1., 10.2., 10.3., 11.12.).

1. We must take into consideration the amount of force applied.

2.. In order to fit the power FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO law model to data, it is necessary to estimate values for α and β.

IX. Прочтите и устно переведите текст, потом письменно переведите 1,2,3

и 4 абзацы текста.

HOW COMPUTERS WORK

1. A general purpose computer has four main sections: the arithmetic and logic unit (ALU), the control unit, the memory, and the input and output devices (collectively FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO termed I/O). These parts are interconnected by busses, often мейд of groups of wires.

2.The control unit, ALU, registers, and basic I/O (and often other hardware closely linked with these) are collectively known as a central processing unit (CPU). Early СPUs were composed of many separate FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO components but since the mid-1970s CPUs have typically been constructed on a single integrated circuit called a microprocessor.

3. The control unit (often called a control system or central controller) directs the various components of a computer. It reads and interprets (decodes) instructions in the program one FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO by one. The control system decodes each instruction and turns it into a series of control signals that operate the other parts of the computer. Control systems in advanced computers may change the order of some instructions so as to improve performance.

4. The ALU is capable of performing two classes FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO of operations: arithmetic and logic. The set of arithmetic operations that a particular ALU supports may be limited to adding and subtracting or might*5.6.1. include multiplying or dividing, trigonometry functions and square roots. Superscalar computers may contain multiple (зд.: много) ALUs so that they can process several instructions FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO at the same time.

5. Magnetic core memory was popular main memory for computers through the 1960s until*9.2.(1). it was completely replaced by semiconductor memory. A computer´s memory can be viewed as a list of cells into which numbers can be placed or read. Each cell has a FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO numbered „address“ and can store a single number. In almost all modern computers, each memory cell is set up (зд.: иметь целью) to store binary numbers in groups of eight bits (called a byte). A computer can store any kind of information in memory as long as it can be somehow represented FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO in numerical form.

X. Письменно озаглавьте 4 и 5 абзацы текста.

Вариант 4

I. Перепишите предложения и переведите их, принимая во внимание разные функции слов it, that (those), one (см. гр. справ.: 4.1., 4.4., 4.3., также ссылки после *).

1. It is also important to achieve as low noise as possible.

2. It is the solid FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO state switch that has become a natural application for the transistor.

3. The atomic weight of oxygen is greater*3.1. than that of carbon.

4. One cannot well imagine a modern rocket or a satellite without a variety of transistors.

II. Перепишите предложения и переведите их, беря во внимание особенности перевода на FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO российский язык определительных блоков существительного с левым либо правым определениями (см. гр. справ.: 2.2., 2.3., 2.3.1.,также ссылки после *).

1. Special signals are sent out by the television transmitter in addition to the picture impulses.

2. Low-energy radio waves are reflected and absorbed by the electrons and ions of the ionosphere.

3. Every computer now in FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO existence must be told*5.5.3., 5.5.4. what to do.

III. Перепишите предложения, обусловьте в каждом из их глагол-сказуемое, его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на российский язык (см. гр. справ.: 5., 5.1., 5.2., 5.3., 5.4., 5.5., 5.5.1., 5.5.6., 11.13.).

1. Solar panels often power spacecraft.

2. In only a very short period of time computers have greatly FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO changed the way in which many kinds of work are performed.

3. The problems of circuits will be dealt with from the point of view of radar engineering.

IV. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в каждом из их модальный глагол либо его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на российский язык (см. гр. справ.: 5.6., 5.6.1., 5.6.3.2.,также ссылки FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO после *).

1. Any information may be represented by the binary system.

2. Heat losses should be reduced constantly and effectively.

3. Popov`s apparatus was so sensitive that it could pick up even the weakest*3.1. radio waves.

4. The device allows the characteristics of electrical signals to be displayed.*7.1.2.1.

V. Перепишите и переведите FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO предложения, беря во внимание разные функции глагола to be (см. гр. справ.: 6., 6.1., 6.2., 5.6.3., 5.6.3.1., 5.5.1.).

1. There are always electrical discharges in the air.

2. The purpose of a huge solar collector is to convert solar energy into electrical

energy.

3. These sources are to be linked up into a single network.

4. Memory chips are being used FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO in many modern handsets which now are beginning to be popular.

VI. Перепишите и переведите предложения, беря во внимание разные функции глагола to have (см. гр. справ.: 6., 6.1., 6.3., 5.6.3., 5.6.3.1., 5.5.1.).

1. Both microprocessors have a 128-bit data bus and up to 32KB of on-chip cache.

2. Popov has found practical application FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO for Hertz`s great discovery.

3. Supercomputers have to operate like brain: all the computations proceed concurrently.

4. Multimeters have traditionally been used to measure voltage, current, and resistance.

VII. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод парных союзов и многозначность неких служебных слов (см. гр. справ.: 3.5., 9.1.2., 9.2., 11.6., 11.7.,также ссылки после *).

1. A bug FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO is an error in either the syntax or the logic of a computer program.

2. Because of the very low density, it is difficult to measure directly the temperature of the upper atmosphere.

3. Since the end of World War II there has been*6.2.(6). a rapid development of jet engines.

VIII FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод устойчивых сочетаний (см. гр. справ.: 10., 10.1., 10.2., 10.3., 11.12.).

1. By means of the field rheostat the current in the field windings (зд.: обмотка возбуждения), and consequently the magnetic field and the electromotive force, may be regulated.

2. Until 1940, developments in electronics took place at a comparatively FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO moderate space (зд.: в ограниченных областях).

IX. Прочтите и устно переведите тексты, потом письменно переведите 2-ой из приведенных текстов.

CORDLESS TELEPHONES

1. Cordless telephones are devices that are employed mostly*3.2.within a home or office. Cordless*1.3.telephones have a very limited mobility – up to a hundred meters. They essentially serve as FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO a wireless extension to the wiring that exists in a home or office because they are plugged (зд.: врубаются) directly into the existing telephone jack. Cordless telephones operate over a pair of frequencies in the 46 – and 48 megahertz bands or over a single frequency in the 902-928-megahertz band.

2. The system FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO based on satellite transmission is available through the use of geostationary-orbit satellites. Satellite-based systems have their specific properties: they are absolutely independent of ground stations. Thus, they may be employed anywhere in the world.

CELLULAR TELEPHONES

1. Cellular telephones are transportable be vehicle or personally portable devices that FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO may be used in motor vehicles or by people. Cellular telephones communicate by radiowave in the 800-900-megahertz band. They allow a great degree of mobility within a service region that may occupy hundreds of square kilometers in area.

2. It should be noted that all communication with a mobile FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO or portable device within a given cell is мейд to the base station that serves the cell. Because of the low transmitting power of battery-operated portable devices, specific sending and receiving frequencies of a cell may be reused in other cells within larger geographic areas. Thus, the spectral efficiency of a FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO cellular system is increased by a factor equal to the number of times a frequency may be reused within its service area.

3. It is interesting to note that the first mobile and portable cellular systems were huge and heavy. But because of *9.2.(2). the progress in component FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO technology, their weight and size were considerably decreased. For example, the weight of light portables in 1990 was equal to 310 grams. By 1994 their weight was reduced and became equal to 120 grams. This process is continuing. The weight of one of the models of cellular telephones produced in Russia-Motorola 70V – is only FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO 81 grams!

X. Письменно озаглавьте 1 и 2 абзацы первого из приведенных текстов.

Вариант 5

I. Перепишите предложения и переведите их, принимая во внимание разные функции слов it, that (those), one (см. гр. справ.: 4.1., 4.4., 4.3., также ссылки после *).

1. It will be*5.4. useful to explore some electrical properties of the tunnel diode.

2. It is FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO these properties of crystals that are the most important.*3.1.

3. This method is the one most widely used *7.3.2.2. for identifying computer users.

4. One should turn the knob until*9.2.(1).a click is heard.

II. Перепишите предложения и переведите их, беря во внимание особенности перевода на российский язык определительных блоков существительного с FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO левым либо правым определениями (см. гр. справ.: 2.2., 2.3., 2.3.1.,также ссылки после *).

1. Transistor performance was steadily improved.*5.5.1.

2. The radio equipment used operated from a 12-volt d.c. source.

3. Unfortunately, no identification system currently in use meets*11.9.all these requirements.

III. Перепишите предложения, обусловьте в каждом из их глагол-сказуемое, его видовременную форму FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO и залог. Переведите предложения на российский язык (см. гр. справ.: 5., 5.1., 5.2., 5.3., 5.4., 5.5., 5.5.1., 5.5.6., 11.13.,также ссылки после *).

1. The tests will show how accurately the device is performing.

2. We have thus*10.3.,10.4.established a flow of collector current.

3. The period in which we live is frequently referred to as the „air age“.

IV. Перепишите предложения FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO, подчеркните в каждом из их модальный глагол либо его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на российский язык (см. гр. справ.: 5.6., 5.6.1., 5.6.3.2.,также ссылки после *).

1. Impurities may be introduced by the diffusion process.

2. Games can consume time that children should spend on other important activities.

3. In the near future there might be FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO*6.2.(6),5.6.1. a great demand for computer specialists.

4. Thomson`s experiments permitted the mass of an electron and its velocity to be measured.

V. Перепишите и переведите предложения, беря во внимание разные функции глагола to be (см. гр. справ.: 6., 6.1., 6.2., 5.6.3., 5.6.3.1., 5.5.1.,также ссылки после *).

1. There are two general methods of capacity measurement.

2. The function of FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO the control unit is to supervise the operation*11.8. of the computer.

3. We are to consider in details how various parts of microprocessor communicate with one another.

4. A good deal of work is now being done on automated program optimization.

VI. Перепишите и переведите предложения, беря во внимание разные функции FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO глагола to have (см. гр. справ.: 6., 6.1., 6.2., 6.3., 5.6.3.1., 5.5.1.,также ссылки после *).

1. Besides these pluses the new product also has a number of*11.7. other advantages.

2. For people who have personal computers computer-to-computer communication has become very popular.

3. This is the problem that has to be solved.

4. Over the years, the FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO device size has been reduced tremendously.

VII. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод парных союзов и многозначность неких служебных слов (см. гр. справ.: 3.5., 9.1.2., 9.2., 11.6., 11.7.).

1. Neutrons not only cause fission; they produce other effects as well.

2. Once the reaction started it proceeded till completion.

3. Because so FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO many companies produce IBM-compatible computer, there are many possible configurations.

VIII. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод устойчивых словосочетаний (см. гр. справ.: 10., 10.1., 10.2., 10.3., 11.12.).

1. Every material body is мейд of one element or a combination of elements. Almost always, the latter is the case.

2. The first nuclear power station FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO was put into operation in 1955.

IX. Прочтите и устно переведите текст, потом письменно переведите 1,2, и 3 абзацы текста.

HISTORY OF TELEVISION

1.Unlike digital computers – which started out as mechanical devices and then went through a brief electrical period during the 1930s, finally becoming electronic only in the 1940s -television was FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO an electrical medium from the its very beginning.

2. Attempts to send images over distances with the use of electricity date to 1876, the year Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone. At that time it was already known that the resistivity of selenium varied with the amount of light falling on FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO it. Thus as soon as*9.2.(1). Bell мейд it*4.1. clear that complex signals could be transmitted over a distance, inventors began trying to develop means*11.12.of „seeing by electricity“, as*9.2.(1).the title of one paper put in (зд.: говорил) at the time.

3. The first television invention that had practical consequences was the FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO „electrical telescope“, patented by Paul Nipkow in 1884. At the heart of his camera was the now famous Nipkow disk. It had 24 holes. As the disk rotated, the sequence of holes scanned the image in a straight line. A lens behind the image region collected the sequential light FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO samples (зд.: пятно, точка) and focused them on a single selenium cell. The cell produced a succession of currents, each proportional to the intensity of the light on a different element of the image.

4. The first all-electronic system was described by Alan Archibald Campbell-Swinton in a letter to Nature magazine FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO on June 18, 1908. His system was based on the cathode-ray tube invented in 1897 by Karl Ferdinand Braun, in Strassburg. Campbell-Swinton proposed using CRTs as both the transmitter and*9.1.2. receiver.

5. One step closer*3.1. to reality was Boris Rosing of the Technological Institute of St. Petersburg University in Russia FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO, who in 1907 developed a TV system that used mechanical scanning on the transmitting end and the Braun CRT as a receiver. One of his students, Vladimir Zworykin helped to develop television as we know it today. Zworykin invented the kinescope – a TV picture tube- thus becoming responsible for FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RADIO both the key transmitting and receiving elements of electronic television.

X. Письменно озаглавьте 4 и 5 абзацы текста.


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